Perencanaan Pendidikan (Bag. 1)

Oleh : Armansyah

Motto pembelajaran :  To believe in education is to believe in the future

Garis besar program pembelajaran :

  1. Memahami makna perencanaan pendidikan
  2. Memahami berbagai teori perencanaan pendidikan
  3. Menganalis perencanaan pendidikan dilembaga pendidikan

Berbicara tentang perencanaan, kita harus berbicara tentang manajemen. 

Berikut pengertian dari manajemen itu sendiri : “Management is the process of working with and through others to achieve organizational objectives in an efficent and ethical manner” (Kreitner and Kinicki, 2004)

Tujuan dari perencanaan/planning sendiri :

  1. Fungsi manajemen
  2. Memberi arah
  3. Meningkatkan /menjamin keberlanjutan kegiatan
  4. Mengurangi ketumpangtindihan
  5. Mencegah, mengurangi, kalau mungin meniadakan kemubaziran

Now, what is planning its self ?
Answer : The process of setting goals, developing strategies and outlining task and schedules to accomplish the goals

–          Setting goals

–          Developing strategies

–          Outlining tasks

–          Outlining strategies

Yang dikelola/ manage :

–          Man/ orang

–          Money/ uang

–          Materials /barang

–          Methods / metode-waktu, cara pelaksanaan, prosedure

–          Marketing /pemasarannya

Perencanaan berdasarkan pendapat beberapa ahli :

Planning is the making of major economic decisions –what and how much is to be producted and to whom it is to be allocated by consious decisions of adeterminate authority on the basis of comprehensive survey of the economic system as a whole (H.D. Dickinson, 1938)

Point-pointnya :

  • What
  • How
  • How much
  • When
  • Where
  • To whom

Planning means coordination throuh a conscious effort, instead of the automatic coordination which takes place in the market and that conscious effort is to be made by an organ of society (C. Landauer, 1994)

Planning is an activity of collective characters and regukations of the activities of individuals by the community

Planning is the attempt by centralizing the management of allocation of resources sufficiently to take into account social cost and social benefits which would be irrelevant to calculation of the decentralized decision maker (G. Sirkin, 1968) / USA

Planning is the activities and arrangements which are intended to improve the functioning of the market mechanism are often considered as most essential elements of planning (G. Caire, 1967) /France

Planning itu menekankan supaya tidak terjadi kompetisi, à Planning emphasizes the absence of competative condition in the various markets as the main reason for economic planning (F. Perroux, 1965)

A Plan tells us how to set about achieving our policies given the operating characteristics of the system (Stone, 1964)

Practical planning consist in harmonious coordination of the conscious central with the cybernatic principle of authomatic, outregulatory and autho-organizing flow of economic process (Nunchinov, 1962) / Soviet

Planning is foresight (melihat kedepan) in formulating and implementing programs and polices (Hudson, 1979)

Poinnya : Planning  Is a Process of :

  • Setting goals
  • Developing strategies
  • Outlining task
  • Outlining schedule

3 etos kerja :

a)      Kejujuran

b)      Kedisiplinan

c)       Kerja keras

Management process :

  1. Planning : Establishing goals and standars; developing rules and procedures, developing plan and forecasting
  2. Organizing : Giving each subordinate a specific task, establishing departments; delegating authority to subordinate; establingshing channels of authority and communication; coordinating the work of subordinate
  3. Staffing (sdm) : Determining what type of people should be hired; recruiting prospective employers; setting performance standard, compensating employees; evaluating perfomance; counceling employee, training and developing employess
  4. Leading (leadership theory) : Getting others to get the job done; maintenaning morale; motivating subordinates
  5. Controlling : Setting standars such as sales quotas, quality standard, or production levels; checking to see how actual performance compares with these standars; taking corrective action as needed

Ada empat (4) cara untuk mengetahui efektivitas manajemen yang dilakukan/ four ways to assess managerial effectiveness:

  1. Goal accomplishment (untuk mencapai tujuan) à is stated (yang tertulis) –cont. skkd, indikator,
  2. Resource acquisition à the management acquires the resources needs (menguasai sumber yg diperlukan)
  3. Internal processes à the management functions smoothly with a minimum of internal strain (berjalan baik dengan sedikit konflik)
  4. Strategic constituencies satisfaction -> the demands and expectations of key interest groups are at least minimally satisfed

Penelitian :

  • Survey
  • Observasi
  • Dokumen
  • Questionary
  • Interview

Evaluasi bisa dilakukan diawal atas perencanaan –> keputusan –>  feedback/ umpan balik dari perencanaan –> laporan

Perencanaan dalam kependidikan meliputi unsur-unsur:

  1. Pendidik (guru)
  2. Peserta didik (siswa)
  3. Kurikulum –> metode, media, standar kompetensi, rpp, silabus, materi, sumber belajar (buku-buku) dst
  4. Sarana dan prasarana (fisik dan non fisik)
  5. Fasilitas
  6. Supervisor

Tujuan Pendidikan Nasional secara poin per poin membentuk siswa agar :

a)      Berimtaq

b)      Cerdas

c)       Mandiri

d)      Kreatif

e)      Berakhlak mulia

f)       Bertanggung jawab

Defenisi perencanaan : adalah usaha cerdas untuk membentuk masa depan, membuat masa depan lebih baik dari sebelumnya, mencoba memahami situasi yang ada dan dianalisa dengan cara yang terjadwal.

Perencanaan adalah melihat kedepan menjadikan lebih baik, pemecahan masalah yang ada, melihat apa yang akan terjadi nanti (forecasting)

Planning –> masuk pola pikir, ada jadwal

How to reach the goal? These kind the things that we need to prepare:

  1. Dana (persiapan)
  2. Waktu
  3. Tempat
  4. Kegiatan (kuliah, kehadiran, tugas, ujian, rajin membaca, motivasi  à pengerahan potensi, quality of personal)
  5. Hubungan interpersonal (baik-baik saja)
  6. Menjaga kesehatan
  7. Alat-alat belajar

We need to be flexible in time, in cost and other things based on situation to reach the goal successful.

We need to take a focus of SWOT : Strength, Weakness, Opportunity, Threat [Kekuatan, kelemahan, kesempatan, ancaman)

Penelitian pengembangan :

–          Longitudinal (berkesinambungan)

–          Uji pasar (by expert such as lecturer and by public such as students, teachers and other community)

Planning is future thinking, planning is controlling the future, planning is decision making, planning is integrated decision making

Perencanaan adalah perhitungan dan penentuan tentang sesuatu yang akan dijalankan dalam mencapai tujuan tertentu oleh siapa dan bagaimana

Proses mempersiapkan kegiatan-kegiatan secara sistematis yang akan dilakukan untuk mencapai tujuan tertentu

Proses penyusunan berbagai keputusan yang akan dilaksanakan pada masa yang akan datang

Fungsi perencanaan :

  1. Sebagai pedoman pelaksanaan dan pengendalian
  2. Menghindari pemborosan sumber daya

 

Management of educational : New paradigm of educational management –> management yang mengutamakan kualitas

3 sudut kualitas yang harus diperhatikan :

  1. Akreditasi (paling lambat 2014 untuk sekolah dan PT)
  2.  Akuntabilitas (tingkat kepercayaan masyarakat pada lembaga kita à pertanggung jawaban kita)
  3. Otonomi (UU –> kelulusan siswa ditentukan oleh sekolah ybs), kebebasan pada sekolah untuk mengatur dirinya –> ex. KTSP, Manajemen berbasis sekolah (peningkatan sdm, sarana dan prasarana untuk meningkatkan mutu sekolah),  responsibility
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